5 Misconceptions About Student Loan Consolidation

Myth 2: The consolidation procedure is the very same for both federal and personal student loans.

Fact: Federal loan consolidation is various from private loan consolidation.

Federal loan consolidation is a government process, while private loan consolidation happens through personal loan providers. If you have both federal and private loans, you may desire to combine your federal loans together and your personal loans together, however it’s rarely advised to combine them all into one loan.

To consolidate your federal student loans, useget a federal Direct Consolidation loan on the Federal Student Supplement site. Bear in mind that federal loan consolidation will not usually lower your rate of interest. Direct Consolidation loan rate of interest are fixed, and are calculated by taking a weighted average of the rate of interest of the loans you’re consolidating.

Unlike federal loan consolidation, personal loan consolidation includes usingobtaining a new loan. Your prospective lenders will assess you mostly based on your credit history and, if you certify, make you an offer.

Some loan providers will combine only personal loans, while others– consisting of the loan providers taking part in the refinancing market Credible– will combine both federal and personal loans. Through Trustworthy, NerdWallet’s partner, you can use to several lenders by filling out a single form. Click on the button below to obtain begun.

Misconception 3: Consolidating your student loans is a no-brainer.

Fact: Student loan consolidation isn’t right for everybody.

Federal student loan consolidation sounds fantastic: You go from managing multiple rate of interest, terms and loan servicers to having one regular monthly payment. But consolidation isn’t for everyone, states Rick Ross, co-founder of the consulting company College Financing Group.

Federal loan consolidation can be useful if you need to do it to access a payment option. For instance, a lot of income-driven repayment strategies and forgiveness programs need that debtors have a federal Direct loan. If you have a loan from the Federal Household Education Loan program, you’ll have to change to a Direct Consolidation loan to access those choices.

However consolidating your student loans can also trigger you to pay more interest in time. Federal Direct Consolidation loan term lengths range from 10 to Thirty Years, depending upon your loan balance. The bigger your balance, the longer your term will be. While a longer term will decrease your monthly payments, it will increase the quantity of interest you’ll pay.

Still, even if you get a Direct Consolidation loan with a long term, there’s no penalty for paying it off early. You need to intend to settle your loans as quick as possible to conserve the most in interest.

Misconception 4: You can refinance federal student loans through the federal government.

Fact: Only private loan providers provide student loan refinancing.

You can refinance both federal and personal student loans, however just through private loan providers. Although it issues student loans, the federal government does not offer student loan refinancing. Some states have actually produced their own refinancing programs, however even those are gone through private lenders.

That implies that no matter which path you go, if you refinance a federal student loan, it will become a private loan. You’ll lose the positive aspects that federal loans offer, including income-driven payment plans, forgiveness programs, and deferment and forbearance.

Misconception 5: Federal student loan consolidation expenses cash.

Fact: Combining your federal student loans is free– you should not pay a third-party business to do it for you.

Federal student loan consolidation is totally totally free through the federal government. However there are business that try to take advantage of the convoluted consolidation process by charging for it. That’s a red flag, Yu says.

To avoid getting included with a crooked student loan consolidation business, do not give out your Federal Student Help (FSA) ID, and don’t send your loan payments to a third-party company. For more detailsFor more details, read about 4 ways to find a student loan scam.

The takeaway

  • You can combine your federal student loans through the government by filling out a complimentary application for a Direct Consolidation loan.
  • You can refinance your federal student loans, however not through the federal government. You’ll need to go through a personal lender, and you’ll lose on federal loan benefits, including income-driven repayment.
  • For personal student loans, consolidation and refinancing are basically the exact same thing. Estimate just how much you could conserve by refinancing through Trustworthy by completing the calculator below.

Teddy Nykiel is a personnel writer at NerdWallet, an individual financing site. Email: teddy@nerdwallet.com. Twitter: @teddynykiel.

Image by means of iStock.

Give Your Kid The Present Of Credit

Unsure what to offer your older kid this vacationholiday? Think about the gift of credit. If your kid is at least a junior in high school, now might be a greata great time to teach them about loaning and properly repaying money. This method, they’ll get practice and experience, in addition to an excellent start on their credit profile, while they’re still securely at homein the house.

4 Options for Very first time Credit Users

If you find that the present of credit is ideal for your teen, you have a few alternatives to explore. You can co-sign for them to get an unsecured charge card, enable them to be an authorized user on one of your accounts, assist them to applyget a bank credit card or assist them with a deposit for a secured card.

  • There are advantages and disadvantages that feature co-signing.
    The huge benefit with helping your kid get a real charge card right from the gate is that, if properly managed, this card will bring them right into their adult life. Nevertheless, this alternative is only advised for young peopleyouths who have shown signs of being accountable and self-motivated.
    This is because the expense will be resolved to the primary cardholder (the kid), and most releasing business will enable the child to raise the credit limitationcredit line without the knowledge of the co-signer (parent). So, if a bill were to go unpaid, your credit ratingcredit history could drop, which expense may be for more than you may expect if the spending limitation has been extended.

    You can decrease the threat included by constantly being the one who checks the mail. And while you don’t need to open the envelope resolved to your child or daughter, you can at least make sure that they do. You can also request verification that the costs has actually been paid on time.

  • Making a kid a licensed user is a great plan for parents with outstanding credit.
    It is usually really simple to permit your kid to have access to your line of credit. Simply call your providing business, and they will send out a 2nd card that imprinted with your child’s name. And when the child uses the card, their charges will appear on your statement.

    The only disadvantage to this plan is that you, the cardholder, will be accountablebe accountable for any spending that your child does with the credit card. So, if they go on a spree, you’ll be left with the bill.

    The great news is that they can be right away taken off of the account if card opportunities are abused. And if you have a long history of timely payments on the account, they will benefit from all of the activity, providing them well established credit that they didn’t need to earn by themselves.

  • Getting a credit card from your bank can be fairly easy.
    If you have a good relationship with your bank, they will often provide to issue your kid a charge card when he or she opens an inspecting account. The cards operate simply like regular, unsecured charge card, so make sure that your child is up to the obligation of not overusing them and remembering to pay the expenses.

    Regrettably, bank-issued charge card generally include low limits and high rate of interest, however they can be fantastic cards to startbegin with if your kid is prepared to settle the balance monthly.

  • Protected cards are best for kids who struggledealing with responsibility.
    If you seem like your child might be tempted to spend too much or get lazy with paying the bills on time, a secured charge card will get rid of some prospective dangers.

    The limitation on a secured card will be developed by the amount of the deposit you put down. For instance, if you provide a $500 deposit, the card’s credit limitation will be $500. There is normally an annual fee, and there might be pricey charges attached if you daughter or boy reviews their limitation, but there are likewise some helpful perks available.

    For a $29 annual fee, Capital One’s Safe card permits kids to monitor their credit ratingcredit report, as well as has a credit simulator that enables them to see what would take place to their score if they were miss out on a payment. They will also be able to see how high their credit ratingcredit history will be if they remain to pay on time for an extended period.

Chase Mortgage Names New Home Mortgage Banking Executive

Chase Mortgage announced it promoted Peter Muriungi to the head of maintenance for home mortgage banking after recent management modifications left the position open.

Formerly, Muriungi functioned as the head of removal, in addition to his duties for portfolio optimization strategy.

Bullion Safe P2P Lender Now Facilitating S$ 1 Million A Month In Loans

Singapore-based Silver Bullion has actually revealed it is now assisting in S$ 1 million per month in bullion secured peer to peer loans. Established in 2009, Silver Bullion simply began providing direct lending in August of 2015. The business was conceived during the height of the financial crisis and now declares a 630 lot capacity vault in Singapore to keep gold and silver. Offering P2P loans has ended up being a brand-new business vertical to take advantage of. Lenders and debtors set their own rate of interest utilizing the online market making platform. When investors and customers agreeaccept terms a contract is developed. Each loan is stated to be secured by 200 % reserved gold or silver. Loans might be completed within minutes. The P2P loan provider has actually now had more than S$ 5 million in loans paid out.

“Silver Bullion Pte Ltd is the FIRST business in the world to provide bullion protected P2P loans. We likewise have the largest P2P loaning platform for secured loans in South East Asia. The growing demand for our bullion secured P2P loans reveals that debtors and loan providers have self-confidence in our loan platform. In a market where we have yet to see lots of safe P2P loan offerings, a loan with silver or gold bullion as security represents absolute security for the loan provider,” states Vergel Villasoto, a Director of Silver Bullion.

Clients with silver or gold bars, which would otherwise be sitting idle in a safe, have the choice to be able to borrow on a portion of the value of the bullion without the need for a credit check. These bars would be kept in Silver Bullion’s vault, The Safe House, totally insured. Lenders’ funds are kept in a segregated Silver Bullion customer financial account meant exclusively for P2P funds. Presently, loan requests can be made in either Singapore dollars or U.S dollars.

Silver Bullion discusses that about 75 % of the total loans disbursed were created by debtors who acquired funding at the interest rates that they wanted. Loans with rate of interest as high as 6 percent have actually been made for all 3 loan period available – 6 months, 12 months and 24 months.

Singapore: Bullion-secured P2P Financing Platform Silver Bullion Problems $3.5 M …

Singapore-based financial services firm Silver Bullion Pte. Ltd. has seen its bullion-secured peer-to-peer (P2P) lending program, released in August 2015, pay out over S$ 5 million ($3.51 million) worth of loans, or more than S$ 1 million ($702,000) a month considering that its launch.

The firm was founded in 2009 by CEO Gregor Gregersen,

Vergel Villasoto, a director of Silver Bullion, said, “Silver Bullion Pte Ltd is the very first company on the planet to offer bullion secured P2P loans. We likewise have the largest P2P lending platform for secured loans in South East Asia.

Villasoto included, In a market where we have yet to see numerous protected P2P loan offerings, a loan with gold or silver bullion as security represents absolute security for the lender.”

Customers with silver or gold bars have the alternative to borrow on a part of the value of the bullion, without needing a credit check. These bars which are the collateral underwriting the loan are saved in Silver Bullion’s 630-ton precious metals vault, The Safe House.

Requiring 200 percent security as part of the P2P lending programme, Silver Bullion has decreased the danger of credit default. This makes it possible for lenders to provide rate of interest as low as 4.5 percent per annum.

For instance, customers holding financial investment grade previous metals need to install bullion worth two times the quantum of their loan amount as security. Failure to repay will see the bullion offered and funds returned to lenders.

Also Read: Singapore: Temasek’s arm Vertex powers 5 huge Asian venturefinancial backing financial investments in Q3

By requiring 200 per cent security, Silver Bullion said it decreases the threat of credit default, allowing it to offer interest rates are as low as 4.5 percent per annum. Currently, they offer loans with interest rates as high as 6 per cent, and made across 3 different durations; 6 months, 12 months and 24 months.

In a statement to Channel News Asia in August 2015, Gregersen expained: “For a P2P system, you would see around 14 to 15 percent interest rates. In our case, because it is so safe, you get a lower return, but you do not need to fret about the possibility of default. And by accepting a low interest, that becomes useful to the debtor because it means the customer can lend at a low rate of interest.

Completely guaranteed for the durationthroughout of their storage, this programme is an extension of its main providing the storage of tax-exempted valuable metals for financial investment and storage. Lenders’ funds are kept in a segregated Silver Bullion customer bank account suggested solely for P2P funds. Currently, loan requests can be made in either Singapore dollars or U.S dollars.

Also Read:

India to get its first physical gold exchange, introduced by bullion association

Singapore: Digix, bitcoin processor Coinify team up to release Ethereum crypto-asset class

Uruguay Recapitalizes State Oil Company

Uruguayan lawmakers have accepted a bill to recapitalize state-owned oil company Ancap, the South American countrys biggest corporation, by writingcrossing out the business $622 million debt to the Economy and Financing Ministry.The lower house of Congress authorized the legislation throughout an unique session on Saturday that lasted more than 14 hours.The legislation had actually already been authorized by the Senate and will now be sent to the president for promulgation.In addition to the debt write-off, the federal government has actually

requested a$ 250 million loan from the CAF-Development Bank of Latin America to minimize Ancaps heavy reliance on personal lenders.The plan to bail out Ancap, whose operations between 2000 and 2015 were the topic of a legislative examination, does not consist of the elimination of present leading executives.The legislation was accepted in the 99-seat lower house of Congress with yes votes from the 50 members of the governing

Broad Front.Ancap, a maker of petroleum products, Portland cement and alcoholic drinksalcohols, ended 2014 with a bottom line of $323 million.In 2013, the business, which

has a local monopoly on oil and gas refining and distribution, published a bottom line of$ 170 million.Ancaps board has actually blamed the companys widening

net losses on factors such as variations in the value of the Uruguayan peso relative to the dollar and investment spending during the 2010 to 2014 period. EFE

Fitch Rates ZAIS CLO 4, LIMITED

CHICAGO–(COMPANY WIRE)– Fitch Records has actually appointed the following rating and Score Outlook to
ZAIS CLO 4, LIMITED:

–$90,675,661 revolving notes AAsf; Outlook Steady.

Fitch does not rate the choice shares.

DEAL SUMMARY

ZAIS CLO 4, LIMITED (ZAIS 4, or the borrower) is a term center
originally closed on Feb. 25, 2015. The facility was structured with
investment parameters that were generally comparablejust like CLO issuance in
that time duration. Credit extended by lenders in the kindthrough funded
loans, in addition to proceeds from the issuance of the revolving notes,.
were used to buy a profile of generally syndicated loans.

The center is handled by ZAIS Leveraged Loan Supervisor 4, LLC (ZAIS, a.
relying advisor of ZAIS Group, LLC). As part of its analysis, Fitchs.
Funds and Possession Manager Scores group (FAM) evaluated ZAIS and.
determined its abilities satisfactory in the context of the score.
assigned to this deal and the financial investment criteria that govern.
its activities. The facilitys investment period expired in August 2015,.
and no further reinvestment is allowed.

Fitchs analysis of the revolving notes included the timely payment of.
both the interest (LIBOR + 1.10 %) and supplemental interest (0.65 %) due.
under the concern of payments. In figuring out the score of the.
revolving notes, no modifications were made to the current profile since no.
further reinvestments are permitted. Fitch also thought about a tension case.
to cash circulations by presuming distressed loan market price for the.
continuing to be life of the deal, thus activating the supplemental interest.
promo code to enhance to its maximum level of 1.9 %. The revolving notes.
have been assigned a Steady Outlook based on Fitchs expectation of.
stable performance through prepared for levels of default and the credit.
improvement offered to the notes.

SECRET RECORD DRIVERS.

Sufficient Credit Enhancement: Credit enhancement (CE) of 28.0 % for the.
revolving notes, in addition to excess spread, is sufficient to secure.
versus profile default and healing rate projections in a AAsf.
anxiety circumstance. The degree of CE readily available to the revolving notes is.
greater than the average CE of current CLO issuances of AA tranches.

B+/ B Asset Quality: The average credit quality of the present.
profile is B+/ B, which is somewhat much better than that of recent CLOs.
Companies ranked in the B record classification signify an extremely speculative.
credit quality; nevertheless, the revolving notes are not likely to be affected.
by the foreseeable level of defaults. The revolving notes are projected.
to be able to stand up to default rates of as much as 50.1 %.

Strong Recuperation Expectations: The current portfolio includes 100.0 %.
initially lien senior protected loans. Roughly 96 % of the portfolio has.
either strong recuperation prospects or a Fitch-assigned healing rating of.
RR2 or greater, and the base case recuperation assumption is 80.5 %. The.
analysis of the revolving notes presumed a 52.7 % recovery rate in Fitchs.
AAsf circumstance.

SCORE LEVEL OF SENSITIVITIES.

Fitch examined the structures sensitivity to the prospective irregularity.
of crucial design presumptions, consisting of reductions in healing rates and.
boosts in default rates or connection. These sensitivities were.
carried out under the structure of the 6 sensitivities outlined in.
Fitchs Global Record Criteria for CLOs and Business CDOs. An.
extra level of sensitivity examined the structures ability to stand up to a.
liquidation of the greatest quality loans in the profile over the next.
6 months, lowering the portfolio to half its current notional and.
thus increasing default rates while decreasing recuperation rates. Fitch.
expects the revolving notes to keep investment grade records even.
under the most severe level of sensitivity scenarios. Outcomes under these.
level of sensitivity circumstances ranged in between BBB+sf and AAAsf for the.
revolving notes.

DUE DILIGENCE USE.

No third celebration3rd party due diligence was offered or reviewed in relation to.
this record action.

The publication of a representations, warranties and enforcement.
systems appendix is not needed for this transaction.

Extra info is readily available at www.fitchratings.com.

Sources of Info:.

The info used to evaluate this score was provided by the.
management representative, Royal Bank of Canada, and the general public domain.

Relevant Requirements.

Counterparty Criteria for Structured Finance and Covered Bonds (bar. 14.
May 2014).

https://www.fitchratings.com/creditdesk/reports/report_frame.cfm?rpt_id=744158.

Requirements for Rate of interest Stresses in Structured Financing Transactions.
and Covered Bonds (club. 19 Dec 2014).

https://www.fitchratings.com/creditdesk/reports/report_frame.cfm?rpt_id=838868.

International Score Criteria for CLOs and Business CDOs (bar. 12 Nov 2015).

https://www.fitchratings.com/creditdesk/reports/report_frame.cfm?rpt_id=873664.

Worldwide Structured Finance Record Criteria (bar. 06 Jul 2015).

https://www.fitchratings.com/creditdesk/reports/report_frame.cfm?rpt_id=867952.

Added Disclosures.

Dodd-Frank Score Information Disclosure Form.

https://www.fitchratings.com/creditdesk/press_releases/content/ridf_frame.cfm?pr_id=997560.

Solicitation Status.

https://www.fitchratings.com/gws/en/disclosure/solicitation?pr_id=997560.

Endorsement Policy.

https://www.fitchratings.com/jsp/creditdesk/PolicyRegulation.faces?context=2amp;detail=31.

ALL FITCH CREDIT RATINGS GO THROUGH PARTICULAR CONSTRAINTS AND.
DISCLAIMERS. PLEASE READ THESE LIMITATIONS AND DISCLAIMERS BY FOLLOWING.
THIS LINK: HTTP://FITCHRATINGS.COM/UNDERSTANDINGCREDITRATINGS.
IN ADDITION, RECORD DEFINITIONS AND THE TERMS OF USE OF SUCH RATINGS ARE.
OFFERED ON THE AGENCYS PUBLIC WEBSITE WWW.FITCHRATINGS.COM.
RELEASED SCORES, REQUIREMENTS AND METHODS ARE READILY AVAILABLE FROM THIS.
WEBSITE WHATSOEVER TIMES. FITCHS STANDARD PROCEDURE, PRIVACY, CONFLICTS.
OF INTEREST, AFFILIATE FIREWALL PROGRAM, COMPLIANCE AND OTHER RELEVANT POLICIES.
AND PROCEDURES ARE ALSO OFFERED FROM THE CODE OF CONDUCT SECTION OF.
THIS SITE. FITCH MAY HAVE PROVIDED ANOTHER PERMISSIBLE SERVICE TO THE.
RANKED ENTITY OR ITS RELATED THIRD PARTIES. INFORMATION OF THIS SERVICE FOR.
RECORDS FOR WHICH THE LEAD ANALYST IS BASED IN AN EU-REGISTERED ENTITY.
CAN BE BASE ON THE ENTITY SUMMARY PAGE FOR THIS ISSUER ON THE FITCH.
WEBSITE.

Local State Senators Prep Legislation For Upcoming Session

Virginia’s biennial budget plan will be the crucial focus of the General Assembly’s fast-approaching 60-day session, however regional state senators likewise will propose bills on subjects ranging from police and human trafficking to school financing, totally free speech and guns.

State Sen. Chap Petersen (D-34th) and Sen. Jennifer Wexton (D-Loudoun) are preparing a bill to require toll incomes from Interstate 66 inside the Beltway to be made use of to expand and improve that stretch of roadway.

“We require to make certain if we have tolls inside 66, we’re not going to have a toll roadwayan interstate that’s an ATM for users, then spread out the money all over the place,” Petersen said.

Another of Petersen’s bills would raise the felony limit for home criminal offenses from $200, which has been the requirement since 1980, to a minimum of $500, if not $1,000. The current threshold is too low and the greater quantities merely would be tracking inflation throughout the stepping in years, he stated.

Petersen likewise will present legislation to need a treatment and standard of proof in cops civil-forfeiture cases. If cops detained someone and could not or did not wish to get a conviction, but still held the suspect’s property, they would need to prove the property was used in commission of a criminal offense and launch it after a set time duration.

Petersen also might refile a costs restricting how long authorities may retain date gleaned from license-plate-reading equipment, but stated a suit is pending on the matter. The senator stated this bill and others reflect his strong regard for civil liberties.

“The federal government should not be in companybeen around of collecting information on people without a warrant,” Petersen said. “We reside in a society where you cannot put people under examination without a reason. That’s an important part of our American identity.”

Petersen also supports academic freedom. Due to protests elsewhere in the nation that avoided questionable people from speaking at some colleges, Petersen may present a costs needing publicly funded groups on college campuses to concur to abide by the First Change.

Petersen likewise is thinking about legislation to get rid of Virginia’s vehicle tax entirely and change it with another source of earnings at the local level. The senator stated he looks forward to positive session in Richmond.

“Republican politicians have a large majority in the Homeyour home [of Delegates] and a slim one in the Senate, however the Democrats hold the guv’s estate,” he stated. “That provides us an opportunity to be in play.”

Sen. Barbara Favola (D-31st) will introduce costs to enhance education financing, enhance labor force development, aid foster youth and hold wrongdoers of domestic violence and sexual attack accountable while supporting their victims.

“We need more powerful public schools, more instructional opportunities for our students and better support systems for our foster youth and foster households,” stated Favola, a previous Arlington County Board member who initially was elected to the state Senate in 2011. “I will likewise concentrate on biomass [energy] efforts and mandating that hate crimes against [lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender] people are reported. My legal program will make Virginia a more secure, better educated, much healthier and more equivalent place to live, work and play.”

Favola’s proposed expenses would: o Boost funding to kindergarten-through-12th-grade public-school systems that bear greater expenses of serving special populations and have higher local costs of living.

o Enable Northern Virginia jurisdictions simpler access to Virginia Preschool Initiative programs.

o Institute a pilot program to offer regular, on-site mental-health services at public schools.

o Supply money for a statewide information system for public schools to much better track and collaborate Individual Educational Plans.

o Offer counties the authority to increase the tobacco tax approximately an added 30 cents, with the demand that those additional incomes be spentinvested in education.

o Permit Virginia to take part in the federal Fostering Futures program, which permits 18- to 21-year-old foster youths to get services if they are taken part in education and job-training activities.

o Offer funding to support school-related expenditures for foster youths attending Virginia’s community-college system and getting involvedtaking part in the Great Expectations Program, which allows them to stayremain in college or graduate with a technical degree.

o Boost per-pupil allotments for in-state students participating in Virginia’s public institution of higher learnings.

o Expand the dual-degree program that enables students to earn associate’s degrees while all at once pursuing a high-school diploma.

o Make targeted investments to enhance innovation start-ups and to grow the cyber-security sector.

o Forbid individuals founded guilty of domestic-violence misdemeanors from having guns for a set durationamount of time following the conviction.

o Temporarily get rid of firearms from people who are the subjects of emergency situation protective orders.

o Restrict individuals noted on the FBI’s Horror Watch and No Fly lists from buying firearms by including those FBI lists in the background check performed at licensed firearm dealerships.

o Guarantee financing is offered to process the stockpile of untested Physical Evidence Recovery Kits from sexual-assault cases and need authorities to submit all such kits to labs for analysis.

o Provide moneying to train health-care experts to determine human-trafficking victims.

o Allow areas to mail out citations to drivers caught on electronic camera while passing stopped school buses with flashing lights on.

Favola predicted the 2016 session will “be very fascinating.”

“The governor’s spending plan lays out a strong vision for Virginia and has cash for education,” she stated. “The governmental election will produce a great deal of jockeying, but hopefully we’ll have the ability to get some actual work done, too.”

State Sen. Janet Howell (D-32nd) has actually filed bills that would:

o Prohibit the listing of company info on the Sex Offender and Crimes Versus Minors Registry, which is maintained by the Virginia State Authorities.

o Prohibit somebody who is subject to a protective order from possessing a firearm. Current law just prohibits such individuals from purchasing or transporting guns.

o Double from $10 to $20 the optimum amount a locality might charge an offender convicted of criminal or traffic offenses in district or circuit courts to fund courtroom and court house security.

o Establish the Virginia Student Loan Refinancing Authority, which would offer loans to Virginia university student at lower rates than they previously gotten from personal loan providers.

o Include a 8th juvenile and domestic relations district court judge in the 19th Judicial Circuit, which covers Fairfax County and the city of Fairfax, and a fourth general district court judge in the 25th Judicial Circuit, which covers localities in western-central Virginia.

o Supply criteria for non-partisan redistricting of General Assembly districts.